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Officials reported that, in the summer of 2015, more than 66,000 immigrants voluntarily returned to Haiti.
Rights groups, however, have challenged the “voluntary” nature of these returns, as some migrants report having been forcibly removed, or having fled the country for fear of mob violence.
Government authorities are still responding to a 2013 Constitutional Tribunal ruling that stripped citizenship from tens of thousands of Dominicans of migrant descent, mostly of Haitian origin, by dual policies of re-registering denationalized citizens and carrying out mass deportations.
At the same time, the government began its first comprehensive effort to regularize the status of undocumented migrants, mostly Haitians.
While the law was meant to restore various citizenship rights to those affected by the 2013 decision and provided a promising legal framework, its implementation has been fraught with flaws.
As of August, more than 26,000 prisoners were held in a system with an intended capacity of 14,000.
Acts of vigilante violence against Haitians punctuated the regularization process, including the lynching of a Haitian man in February and the murder of another Haitian man in August.
Rights groups have also raised concerns regarding the lack of clear deportation protocols and the possibility of racial profiling in the deportation process.
La Victoria, the largest prison in the country, had an official capacity of 2,000 yet holds more than 8,000 inmates.
Violence against women and girls remains a problem.